Types of children’s cancers

This section provides specific information on different types of children’s cancers, including known risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Leukaemia

Leukaemia is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow. It occurs when the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells (lymphocytes), which are part of the body’s immune system to fight infections.

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Brain and other central nervous system tumours

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.There are many different types of cells in the brain and other parts of the CNS, and each of these can develop into different types of tumours.

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Hodgkin disease (Hodgkin lymphoma)

Hodgkin disease is a type of cancer called a lymphoma. It occurs when certain types of white blood cells called lymphocytes grow in an uncontrolled way. Lymphocytes are part of the immune system that help our bodies fight infection.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that occurs when certain types of white blood cells (lymphocytes) grow in an uncontrolled way. Lymphocytes are part of the immune system that help our bodies fight infection.

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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is a form of cancer that is made up of cells that are found in nerve tissues of the body, called neuroblasts. Many neuroblastomas start in the adrenal glands.

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Soft tissue sarcoma

Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of cancers that develop from cells of connective tissue. These include cells that make up our muscles, fat, lining of joints and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcomas can develop almost anywhere in the body.

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Kidney tumours

Kidney tumours are also called renal tumours. Kidney tumours occur when abnormal cells in the kidneys grow in an uncontrolled way. The most common type of kidney tumour in children is called Wilms tumour.

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Melanoma

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that forms from melanocytes. These are cells in the outer layer of the skin that form melanin - the pigment that gives your skin its colour.

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Bone tumours

Bone tumours occur when abnormal cells in the bones grow in an uncontrolled way. There are 2 main types of bone tumours in children - osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.

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Germ cell tumours

A germ cell is the type of cell that develops into eggs (in the ovaries) or sperm (in the testicles). Germ cell tumours occur when abnormal germ cells grow in an uncontrolled way, and can develop before or after birth.

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Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma forms in the retina - the light-sensing area at the back of the eye. It usually occurs in young children, and can affect one or both eyes.

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Liver tumours

Liver tumours (also called hepatic tumours) occur when abnormal cells in the liver grow in an uncontrolled way. There are several different types of liver tumours that can occur in children.

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published: Sunday, 23 August, 2015